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 Which muscle predicts maximum jump?

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Pete
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PostSubject: Which muscle predicts maximum jump?   Tue May 10, 2011 4:46 am

Here's a study where they measured jumping ability & compared them to muscles of the lower body. Was there any correlation to the size of any muscle & the ability to jump...apparently yes. The calf (gastrocnemius) the outside or lateral portion seemed to correlate quite well to jumping ability. This could be a 'chicken or egg' type of argument as is it the big calf that makes them jump high or the jumping high that produces a big calf? As the calf works as a strong decelerator it could be landing that builds the calf, not taking-off. So, this isn't the definitive answer, but interesting enough that jumpers might well want to work on their calves & eccentric work to improve jumping.
Here's the abstract:

Quote :
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20195084

J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Mar;24(3):722-9.
Lower-body muscle structure and its role in jump performance during squat, countermovement, and depth drop jumps.
Earp JE, Joseph M, Kraemer WJ, Newton RU, Comstock BA, Fragala MS, Dunn-Lewis C, Solomon-Hill G, Penwell ZR, Powell MD, Volek JS, Denegar CR, Häkkinen K, Maresh CM.
Source

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.
Erratum in

J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Jun;24(6):1705. Joseph, M [added].

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lower-body muscle structure and vertical jump performance. Twenty-five resistance-trained men (age, 23.3 +/- 3.2 years; height, 176.1 +/- 7.4 cm; and weight, 86.2 +/- 11.6 kg) took part in both anatomical and jump performance testing. Muscle fascicle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle were analyzed for the vastus lateralis (VL) and the lateral gastrocnemius (LG). Jump height and both relative and absolute power were measured for the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and depth drop jump (DDJ). Regressions were used to determine if jump performance could be predicted using the aforementioned structures. No VL measurements were significantly correlated with any of the jump measures. Lateral gastrocnemius pennation angle was a significant but weak predictor of jump height for all 3 jump types (SJ: r2 = 0.212, p = 0.021; CMJ: r2 = 0.186, p = 0.018; DDJ: r2 = 0.263, p = 0.005). When comparing jump height at increasing preloads, none of the variables of interest could significantly predict the jump height differences between CMJ and SJ. However, LG fascicle length had a weak but significant inverse relationship with DDJ-CMJ (r2 = 0.152; p = 0.031). Lateral gastrocnemius thickness was the strongest predictor of absolute power for all jump types and between jump types (SJ: r2 = 0.181, p = 0.034; CMJ: r2 = 0.201, p = 0.014; DDJ: r2 = 0.122, p = 0.049; CMJ-SJ: r2 = 0.201, p = 0.014; DDJ-CMJ: r2 = 0.146, p = 0.034). Lateral gastrocnemius pennation angle was also the best predictor of relative power for all 3 jump types and between jump types (SJ: r2 = 0.172, p = 0.038; CMJ: r2 = 0.416, p = 0.000; DDJ: r2 = 0.167, p = 0.024; CMJ-SJ: r2 = 0.391, p = 0.000; DDJ-CMJ: r2 = 0.136, p = 0.039). Results for jump performance differ from those previously found for sprinting in that greater pennation and shorter fascicles, positively predicting jumping ability at increased prestretch loads reinforcing the need for training specificity. Our findings in resistance-trained men indicate that where jumping is vital to athletic success one can benefit from developing LG muscle architecture along with addressing eccentric strength.
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PostSubject: Re: Which muscle predicts maximum jump?   Tue May 17, 2011 9:13 am

Quote :
As the calf works as a strong decelerator it could be landing that builds the calf, not taking-off.
Depending on just how high the people are jumping, this could be more the case. To really be jumping high, I think the larger muscles of the hamstrings/glutes matter much more than the calves.
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